For human survival, water is an essential need and therefore we must have mechanisms put in place to test the quality of water that is being consumed by humans in towns and cities as well as the rivers, creeks and shoreline that surround us. Availability of good quality water enables prevention of outbreaks of waterborne diseases or diseases caused by pollutants hence improving the quality of life.
Though we rely heavily on ground water, there are multiple pollutants that can make this water poisonous if not detected at source before use.
Some of the important sources of water pollution identified are:
- Domestic waste water and sewage
- Industrial discharge from industries like petrochemical, food processing, metal, chemical etc.
- Agricultural water pollution caused by fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides and farm animal wastes
- Radioactive Wastes from nuclear tests, nuclear reactors and use of radioactive materials in medical research etc.
- Thermal pollution from thermal and electric power plants
- Oil pollution due to some accident or leakage oil spills
Identifying and pinpointing the source of these pollutants via sensors can enable decision making ahead of time for authorities thus improving the response time to take counter measures.